What is the human development index (HDI)? How is relevant data queried?
1. The human development index (HDI) was developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1990, and is announced on an annual basis. The HDI was first compiled out of a belief that, while "income growth" is necessary to the development of society, it is not the important consideration, and UNDP therefore compiled the four indicators "life expectancy at birth," " adult literacy rate," "gross enrolment ratio," and " GDP per capita (PPP US$)" as a single composite index more accurately reflecting each country's development achievements in the areas effort health, education, and the economy.
2. To keep up with changing times, UNDP has continuously reviewed the reasonableness of the index. Twenty years after compilation of the original index, UNDP performed a major overhaul in 2010. Retaining the "health" indicator "life expectancy at birth," UNDP changed the "education" indicators from "adult literacy rate" and "gross enrolment ratio" to "mean years of schooling" and "expected years of schooling", and changed the "economy" indicator from " GDP per capita (PPP US$) " to "Nominal GNI per capita (PPP US$)" In 2011, UNDP further began calculating the latter indicator on the basis of real, as opposed to nominal, values, which eliminated the effect of consumer price fluctuations on long-term comparison. In addition, the calculation function was changed from a simple mean to a geometric mean function.
3. Based on the UN's definition and methodology, detailed HDI data of Taiwan can be obtained on the Internet website http://eng.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=25280&ctNode=6032&mp=5.